S. Wojciech Sokolowski,  International Journal of Voluntary and Non-Profit Organizations VOLUNTAS, June 2000.

This paper examines the role of nonprofit organizations in the process of professional innovation that involved a transfer of human service technologies from Western Europe and the United States to Poland during the transition to democracy. The paper discoveres elective affinity between the nonprofit organizational form and occupational interests of service providers. As the existing system of professions is no longer sufficient to legitimate expert services and curb competition among different types of providers, the nonprofit organizational form legitimizes novel or controversial types of services, and is thus instrumental in marketing those services.