Petrella F., Richez-Battesti, N. (2012) In: Bozzini, E. et Enjolras, B. (ed.), Governing ambiguities: New Forms of Local Governance and Civil Society, Nomos.

In most European countries the development of care services has been characterised by a decentralisation of authority, a diversification of stakeholders, with an increasing role played by the third sector, and a diversification of public-policy instruments. As a result, the modes of governance are becoming more complex while the possibilities for participation are still limited and territorial inequalities are increasing. These trends pose serious challenges in terms of the quality and accessibility of the services themselves, as well as those of the jobs created.

In this chapter the authors suggest that civil society organizations have substantially different roles to play in top-down and bottom-up governance arrangements. They show how difficult it may be to find a balance between competition and innovation in a multi-level institutional structure.